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The cell cycle is a series of steps that cells undergo to replicate, or become more than one.
For human cells, there are two types of ways cells can replicate: Mitosis and Meiosis. Mitosis is somatic cell division, and it occurs in four stages. Meiosis occurs in the production of gametes, and there are eight stages.
✏️ Here are the four stages of Mitosis:
- Prophase 🙏 The chromosomes start to become thicker and become visible. The mitotic spindle forms, and the covering around the nucleus of the cell, the nuclear envelope, dissolves.
- Metaphase 🍈 The chromosomes meet in the middle of the cell, attached to spindle fibers. A common way to remember this is that metaphase and middle both start with the letter "m".
- Anaphase 🐜: The spindle fibers pull the cells apart. They are now own two different sides of the same cell.
- Telophase ⛺ : The cell now becomes two. The middle of the cell pinched inward, and it causes one cell to split into two. The chromosomes that were on two different sides of the same cell are now in two different, identical daughter cells.
You can use the emojis above to help you remember the order of the four steps with the phrase: Pray the Melon doesn't get seen by the Ant, otherwise we might have to move our Tent. The order of these four words spells PMAT, which is the order of the four stages.
✏️ Here are the stages of Meiosis:
- Prophase 1 👸- Chromosomes condense and also pair up with each other. Then, they exchange genetic information in a process called crossing over. This helps increase genetic diversity in the offspring.
- Metaphase 1 📝 - The pairs of chromosomes that matched up now line up in the middle of cell.
- Anaphase 1 😠 - Chromosomes are separated into two different parts of the cell,
- Telophase 1 📞 - The middle of the cell is pinched, and two different cells form.
- Prophase 2 🏣 - The chromosomes condense. The nuclear envelope dissolves.
- Metaphase 2 📣 - The chromosomes, which are attached to spindle fibers, line up in the middle of the cell.
- Anaphase 2 🏧 - Spindle fibers pulls the chromosomes apart, and now chromatids migrate to opposite ends of the two cells.
- Telophase 2 🎫 - The middle of the cell is pinched, and four new genetically diverse cells are created.
You can use these emojis to help you remember: Princess Memo angrily telephoned the post office. "The megaphone you sent me is broken, please refund the money to my ATM, or I will write you a royal ticket." she told them.
The order of the bold letters is PMATPMAT, which tells you the order of the eight steps.
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