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🔍 Background 🔍
- After the failure of the Articles of Confederation, there was a need for a blueprint for a new government. See my full article on the fall of the Articles of Confederation here:
- Political negotiation at the Constitutional Convention developed the constitutional system.
- Compromises necessary for the Constitution has led to unresolved issues that are still debated today.
4️⃣ The 4 Main Compromises 4️⃣
- Great (Connecticut) Compromise
- Electoral College
- Three-Fifths Compromise
- Compromise on the importation of slaves
🤝 Great (Connecticut) Compromise 🤝
- Agreement between the large and small states because large states wanted representation based on population while small states wanted equal representation.
- Was proposed by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth which combined the Virginia (large state) plan and the New Jersey (small state) plan.
- Created the bicameral congress.
- Members of the House of Representatives would be distributed by each state’s population and elected by the people.
- For the senate, each state will have 2 representatives no matter the population size. They will be chosen by the people as well.
- This issue caused chaos at the Constitutional Convention but was passed by a slim majority on July 23, 1787.
🗳 Electoral College 🗳
- Debate was split between not wanting the president to be chosen by Congress because of corruption and not having the people solely choosing the president because of "fear of the mob".
- Led to the compromise of electoral intermediaries.
- Electors will be chosen not by Congress or the people but rather by the states.
📜 Three-Fifths Compromise 📜
- Resulted because states didn't know how many electors to assign.
- Led to this controversial compromise that counted black slaves as three-fifths of a person.
- Used this compromise to determine the number of representatives and electors to assign as well as the amount of federal taxes.
📝 Compromise on the importation of slaves 📝
- 10 states had already outlawed the slave trade but 3 states- Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina- threatened to leave the convention if the slave trade was banned.
- A special committee was created and decided that Congress would have the power to ban the slave trade, but not until 1800.
- The convention voted on the idea and decided to extend the date to 1808.