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  • This review talks about the Protestant Reformation.
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  • Catholicism originated during the late Roman era and held a monopoly on European religion until the 16th c.
  • Core tenets involved salvation by faith and good works, upholding of seven sacraments, the church as the only Biblical authority, transubstantiation, and a specific hierarchy of Church officials.

Lutheranism 📜

  • Lutheranism was the original form of Protestantism based on Martin Luther's teachings.
  • It advocated for salvation by faith alone, participated in only baptism and communion sacraments, believed in consubstantiation, took doctrine from scripture only, and had no hierarchy.
  • Lutheranism mixed with light Catholicism was the basis of King Henry VIII's Anglican church.


  • Calvinism was the first major sect to split off Protestantism. In America, followers were known as the Puritans.
  • Calvinists believed in predestination, followed baptism and communion only, saw the communion ritual as purely symbolic, took scripture as the only authority, and had no church hierarchy.
  • Calvinists were also considered extreme in their beliefs. Worship was an intellectual pursuit that consumed all time- therefore art and music were banned, and Calvinists supported a theocracy.

Anabaptism 🚫

  • Anabaptists were radical Christians who tried to follow the Bible exactly. There was no central Anabaptist church, just many small sects with similar beliefs.
  • Almost all Anabaptists agreed with the separation of church and state. Furthermore, they delayed baptism until adulthood, so the believer could be fully aware of what it entailed.
  • Anabaptists were persecuted longer than most Protestant sects. Upon moving to the Americas, Anabaptists associated with and adopted Quaker beliefs. 
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