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Check out Crash Course World History THE MONGOLS to get more information:
Mongol Khanates: Divisions of rule during the Mongol empire, where each state/khanate was ruled by a Khan.
4 Mongol Khanates (after the death of Genghis Khan):
⚔️ Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368):
- China’s first foreign-led dynasty (by the Mongols).
- Led by Kublai Khan.
- Marco Polo served under Kublai for 17 years during his travels to China.
- Chinese locals persecuted and would not be allowed to speak Mongolian.
- Kublai Khan united China after more than 300 years.
- Development of novels and drama during this empire.
- Movable type printing was made more efficient.
- Yuan Dynasty finally plagued with corruption and internal rebellion.
- 1367 Zhu Yuanzhang’s army captured Beijing.
- Ming Dynasty replaced Yuan.
⚔️ Golden Horde (13th to 15th century CE):
- Nomadic empire.
- Established in Russia and took over Eastern Europe.
- Later replaced by the Turks.
- Made up of Mongols and Turks.
- Russian princes forced to submit as vassals under Batu Khan.
- Horde began to decline after the invasion of Timur in 1396.
⚔️ Chagatai Khanate (1220s to 17th century):
- Ruled by Chagatai Khan (second son of Genghis Khan).
- Lasted (as a whole) from the 1220s to 17th century.
- Empire split during fragmentation of Mongol empire (after 1259).
- Timur’s empire took control of Western half in 1370.
- Chagatai land was mostly Turkic nomad lands.
⚔️ Ilkhanate (1256-1335 CE):
- Common languages were Persian and Mongolian.
- Eased trade and commerce across Asia.
- Communication between Ilkhanate and Yuan Dynasty aided trade.
- Rulers of Ilkhanate later converted to Islam.
- The decline began with the death of Ilkan Ghazan in 1304.