🧵 Make this year of AP smoother than silk! You can review for AP World History with weekly live streams and content as a member of Fiveable+. Join 👉 here today!

Check out Crash Course World History THE MONGOLS to get more information: 

Mongol Khanates: Divisions of rule during the Mongol empire, where each state/khanate was ruled by a Khan.

4 Mongol Khanates (after the death of Genghis Khan):

⚔️ Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368):

  • China’s first foreign-led dynasty (by the Mongols).
  • Led by Kublai Khan.
  • Marco Polo served under Kublai for 17 years during his travels to China.
  • Chinese locals persecuted and would not be allowed to speak Mongolian.
  • Kublai Khan united China after more than 300 years.
  • Development of novels and drama during this empire.
  • Movable type printing was made more efficient.
  • Yuan Dynasty finally plagued with corruption and internal rebellion.
  • 1367 Zhu Yuanzhang’s army captured Beijing.
  • Ming Dynasty replaced Yuan.

⚔️ Golden Horde (13th to 15th century CE):

  • Nomadic empire.
  • Established in Russia and took over Eastern Europe.
  • Later replaced by the Turks.
  • Made up of Mongols and Turks.
  • Russian princes forced to submit as vassals under Batu Khan.
  • Horde began to decline after the invasion of Timur in 1396.

⚔️ Chagatai Khanate (1220s to 17th century):

  • Ruled by Chagatai Khan (second son of Genghis Khan).
  • Lasted (as a whole) from the 1220s to 17th century.
  • Empire split during fragmentation of Mongol empire (after 1259).
  • Timur’s empire took control of Western half in 1370.
  • Chagatai land was mostly Turkic nomad lands.

⚔️ Ilkhanate (1256-1335 CE):

  • Common languages were Persian and Mongolian.
  • Eased trade and commerce across Asia.
  • Communication between Ilkhanate and Yuan Dynasty aided trade.
  • Rulers of Ilkhanate later converted to Islam.
  • The decline began with the death of Ilkan Ghazan in 1304.
Did this answer your question?